Over the past few years, you might have noticed a surfeit of articles covering current research on bilingualism. Some of them suggest that it sharpens the mind, while others are clearly intended to provoke more doubt than confidence, such as Maria Konnikova’s “Is Bilingualism Really an Advantage?” (2015) in The New Yorker. The pendulum swing of the news cycle reflects a real debate in the cognitive science literature, wherein some groups have observed effects of bilingualism on non-linguistic skills, abilities and function, and others have been unable to replicate these findings.
Despite all the fuss that has been made about the “bilingual advantage,” most researchers have moved on from the simplistic ‘is there an advantage or not’ debate. Rather than asking whether bilingualism per se confers a cognitive advantage, researchers are now taking a more nuanced approach by exploring the various aspects of bilingualism to better understand their individual effects.
To give an idea of the nuances I am talking about, consider this: there is more than one type of bilingualism. A “simultaneous bilingual” learns two languages from birth; an “early sequential bilingual” might speak one language at home but learn to speak the community language at school; and a “late sequential bilingual” might grow up with one language and then move to a country that speaks another. The differences between these three types are not trivial—they often lead to different levels of proficiency and fluency in multiple aspects of language, from pronunciation to reading comprehension.
Read more: Quartz