The United States is home to 562 federally recognized American Indian Nations, each with its own language.
Yet the number of Native Americans with the ability to speak their tribe’s language has decreased over the past century.
Now, Indian Nations are trying different ways to expand the number of native speakers, and increase interest in their communities to learn tribal languages.
Language in the United States
Since the late 1800s, many American Indian children have attended boarding schools. At the time, Indian children were required to attend schools by law, and the federal government forced Indian families to send their children to such schools.
The purpose of this requirement was to educate young people, as well as assimilate them in “American ways of life.”
The children were separated from their families, and given English names. As many boarding schools were operated by religious groups, the children were also taught Christianity.
One of the most lasting effects of these schools was language. The teachers often taught Native American students in English, instead of the language of their parents.
AnCita Benally serves as education program manager for the Navajo Nation. She says the boarding school students were told they needed to learn English in order to get a job, earn money and buy a house or nice things.
Benally says the effect of these schools has lasted for generations. When the “boarding school generation” started having children, they were only taught English. At the time, many people believed this made sense – for economic and other reasons. But a lot of Native Americans could no longer speak their tribal language well enough to pass it on to their children.
Today, even though tribal-run schools exist on their territory, most tribes report that their youngest members have trouble speaking traditional, tribal languages. Fearing a loss of history and culture, the Indian Nations are experimenting with new ways to increase the language ability and interest of tribal members.
Read more: Voice of America